Causes Of Genetic Mutation
Mutation is a change in the sequence of the genes. Every living organism has a certain gene order. If you assign an alphabet to each of the genes present in the DNA, then you will see that they form a unique sequence. This sequence is different and unique in every single organism. The sequence may resemble to some extent to the parents, but overall it will have its own signature. Even twins who are born at the same time carry a different gene sequence from each other.
Sometimes errors also occur in the genetic code, and this is what causes deformities in the person. No two mutations would result in the same DNA sequence and in fact, everything carries its individual signature.
Mutations occur when a new being is being created through bisexual or asexual process. In asexual processes, it is possible that two organisms may carry the same gene mutation. However, in bisexually produced organisms, no two organisms will have the same gene mutations. These mutations help to maintain the individuality among several people. If not for the gene mutations, then everyone will end up looking the same. Also, mutations are necessary because they bring about the desired changes in the living organisms to survive in changing environmental conditions. Gene mutation is even seen plants, and they pass on the mutation to their offsprings.
Mutation can be caused by spontaneously to cope with changing environmental factors or they can be induced. Spontaneous gene mutations do occur frequently; and it has been seen that they occur during normal functioning of the cell during the process of replication or other metabolic processes. Spontaneous gene mutations occur when environment changes take place. This allows the resultant offspring greater chances of survival. Induced gene mutations can occur due to mutagens X-rays, UV radiation, nitrous oxide or radioisotopes.
Different living beings follow different processes for mutation, and they always produce an offspring with a different gene code. Mutation is the principle by which the theory of natural selection works.
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