All through history Sudan had the Arab heritage in the north and African heritage in the south. Both the groups were divided based on the language, religion, economic class and race and this lead to ethnic clashes. As the southern part of the people in Sudan ate isolated geographically, they were unable to participate in the political, economical and social life of Sudan.
The evolution of Sudan was also affected by its relation with the Egypt. Egypt and Sudan had relationship from the 8th millennium BC. These 2 countries started having modern relations in the year 1920 as the army of Egypt under the command of ottoman invaded Sudan’s Liverpool. In the next few years, Egypt occupied Red Sea coast and the Great Lakes region in East Africa. Egypt ruled Sudan for 64 years and ended its rule in the year 1885. However, the rule of Egypt influenced the politics and economy of Sudan. As the Sudan came into control of the Anglo Egyptian rule in the year 1899, it strengthened the relations between Khartoum and Cairo.
The British period in Sudan also impacted Sudan. It united and pacified the country. Also, the British used technology to develop the country economically, and established democratic institutions.
The history of Sudan after the independence is mostly related to the civil war in the south. These conflicts slowed down the development of the nation, and they gave raise to political instability and resulted in the never ending unstable governments. It is still affecting the people of Sudan and their institutions.
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